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Oral History Suzanne Gross (née Sarah Pertofsky), born in Paris, France in 1931, describes her parents, who were born in Belz (Ukraine) and immigrated to France around 1924; her parents’ parlor in Paris, which was closed by the Germans after the invasion of Paris; the round up of Jews and separation of families; how non-native born Jews were rounded up before Jews who were considered French; being made to feel she was not really French before the war, especially after she started school; having to wear her Yellow Star to school; her father going underground and working at first on a farm, then joining the Jewish French partisans; antisemitism within the French partisans; her father working later in a steel factory; her mother being hidden by neighbors for three months; being sent to a farm in Normandy with five or six other children by the French Jewish Scouts (Eclaireurs Israelites de France), who had an underground network to hide Jewish children; working on various farms under harsh conditions; being hidden in a convent school, where she pretended to be Catholic; reuniting with her parents in Paris; how her parents lived clandestinely on and off in their boarded up shop; the family receiving money from a resistance movement in the steel factory where her father worked; the concierge helping by selling items knitted by her mother; the imprisonment of many Jews at Drancy; how families searched for arrested relatives from afar; giving a detailed account of her emotional responses to the childhood trauma she experienced and to surviving the Holocaust; and her family immigrating to the United States in 1946.

Oral History Isadore Hollander, born 1920 in Paris, France, describes moving to Bendin (Bedzin), Poland with his Polish parents and older sister in 1923; the pre-war Jewish community; his father’s death and living from ages 11 to 15 in an orphanage, which operated according to Janusz Korczak guidelines; his mother’s re-marriage; joining a Zionist youth group; the growing antisemitism in Poland; the German invasion in September 1939 and running from town to town to avoid forced labor, until he was captured and sent to work in a coal mine in Javorzno near Krakow, Poland; escaping to Russian-occupied Poland and living in Lvov (L'viv, Ukraine) at the beginning of 1940; avoiding imprisonment for “illegal” business by registering for work in Russia; being assigned to Stalino coal mine in the Donbas region; escaping to Rovno (Rivne, Ukraine) and his religious life there from the winter of 1940 to June 1941; the establishment of the Rovno ghetto and escaping from slave labor with help from former Polish soldiers; living with 10 other Jews in near by forests until 1943; having minimal contact with Polish partisans due to mutual suspicion; serving in the Polish Army; witnessing the German-evacuated Majdanek; his life as a Polish soldier including revenge he and other Jewish soldiers took on Volkdeutsche Poles; returning at the end of the war to Bendin and meeting his future wife; their escape from Poland and life in Deggendorf displaced persons camp in Bavaria, Germany; and immigrating to the United States and settling in Philadelphia, PA in 1947.

Experimental Raman spectra of the iron(III) isothiocyanate with higher coordination number in the acidic aqueous solution have been analyzed.

Molecular modeling of the iron(III) monoisothiocyanate complex was accomplished by the density functional theory (DFT) method using B3LYP and PBE1PBE functionals.

World War, 1939-1945--Deportations from Netherlands. Trebitz (Wittenberg, Germany) United States--Emigration and immigration.19, LT-50254 Kaunas, Lithuania), AF(Department of Environmental Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilėnų av.19, LT-50254 Kaunas, Lithuania) complex in the aqueous solution at the p H ∼ 2 ± 0.1 have been performed.Erica Van Adelsberg (née Herz), born in Munich, Germany in 1928, describes her assimilated, liberal Jewish family; leaving Germany with her parents and younger brother in 1932 to live in Aerdenhoudt, Holland; living comfortably and the decency of the Dutch people; how in 1940 after the German occupation, her family was designated as being stateless; being forced to move and conditions worsening; being sent to Westerbork internment camp in 1942; continuing her education and being trained as a laboratory technician at age 14; becoming part of a Zionist youth group, which heightened her Jewish identity in contrast to her parents' assimilated orientation; life in the camp, including her friend's wedding as well as the weekly transports to Auschwitz; being sent with her family on February 15, 1944 to Bergen-Belsen; the camp routine and her work in a plastic pipe factory; the cruelty of the Polish Kapos; contracting with para-typhoid for several weeks with no medication; the family being transported by train in April 1945 with about 600 others for two weeks; enduring bombings by Allied planes; being liberated by two Russian soldiers on horseback in Trbitz, near Leipzig, Germany; the Russians setting up a hospital and caring for the survivors, many of whom succumbed to typhoid fever; how six weeks later the Americans took her family back to Holland, where her brother became the first to celebrate a bar mitzvah after the war; going to the United States in 1946; and attending a Quaker school. Oral History Rose Fine (née Hollender) born in Ozorków, Poland in 1917, describes her Orthodox Jewish family; her father, who was a shochet; the living conditions during the German occupation before and after the establishment of the Ozorków Ghetto in 1941; the health conditions in the ghetto; deportations; her work in the ghetto hospital, where children were put to starve to death; the behavior of the Volksdeutsche in Ozorków; her mother’s deportation to Chelmno, Poland, where she was gassed to death; witnessing the deportation of the old and infirm in chloroform-filled Panzer trucks in March 1941; seeing the public hanging of 10 Jews; being transferred to the Lodz Ghetto in 1942 where she worked for Mrs. Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)--Personal narratives. Oral History Susan Faulkner (née Neulaender), born in 1921 in Berlin, Germany, describes her father, who was a banker; being raised in an assimilated Jewish family; still having Jewish religious instruction in her public school during the first year under the Nazi regime; being favorably influenced by the ordained female rabbi, Regina Jonas; experiencing antisemitism and traumatic discrimination at school after 1933; the brief relaxation of anti-Jewish measures in Berlin during the 1936 Olympic Games; attending a private Jewish school for a year; having a brief, unhappy experience in a Zionist agricultural school in Silesia in 1936; working for relatives in Gleiwitz in Silesia (Gliwice, Poland), where she felt more protected in a traditional Jewish community than she had felt in Berlin; returning to Berlin and working in Alltrue emigration processing agency; her memories of Kristallnacht in November 1938 and witnessing the destruction of Jewish property, the burning of the Fasanenstrasse Synagogue as onlookers cheered, and the beating of an elderly Jewish man; how her father fled to Belgium, was later caught in Marseilles, and died in Auschwitz; traveling with her mother and sister to Guatemala in 1938 on a German ship; their fourth class passage and how they were treated with disdain by the crew; reaching the United States two years later; getting married in 1942 to an Austrian refugee who converted to Protestantism; beginning her college studies in 1958 with restitution money from Germany and earning a Ph. in English; becoming a teacher; her need to bear witness to the Holocaust; her psychological problems associated with survivor guilt; and her painful attempts to identify as a Jew, including compulsive writing of pro-Jewish and pro-Israel letters to editors.

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